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Basics of electric power generation in power plants

The generation of electric power is understood as the transformation of other types of energy into electricity. In continuation, the procedure of electricity generation will be described in which mechanical energy is transformed into electric power. This is how the majority of electricity is generated nowadays.

Electric generators are based on the principle of electromagnetic induction to generate electric power and are driven by turbines. Turbines transform various types of primary energy into mechanical energy.

Types of power plants
Depending on the type of primary power used in the process of generating electric power, the following types of power plants exist:

  • thermal power plants, in which steam is produced by heat from the combustion of various types of solid fuels or from nuclear reactors for driving steam turbines,
  • hydroelectric power plants, where water drives the turbines,
  • gas-fired power plants, in which hot gases are produced by combustion of gases or liquid fuels, and
  • wind power stations, in which turbines are driven by the wind.


How is electric power generated in hydroelectric power plants?

Types of hydroelectric power plants:
Depending on the characteristics of the watercourse on which a power plant is constructed, hydroelectric power plants can be separated into:

  • reservoir type, where there is a large available head and small quantity of water,
  • run-of-river type, which is built on rivers with smaller available heads and larger water flows, and
  • channel-type, which is built on flat rivers and are, in fact, run-of-the-river power plants.


Types of hydro turbines:
The following turbines are most commonly used in hydroelectric power plants:

  • Kaplan turbines, suitable for low available heads and larger water flows,
  • Francis turbines, suitable for middle-sized available heads, and
  • Pelton turbines, suitable for high available heads and smaller water flows.


Turbine power

A turbine’s power is dependent on the available head and the quantity of water that flows through the turbine.

How is electric power generated at DEM?